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They are the successors of the Apostles, though they do not possess all the prerogatives of the latter. The cause of this lay in the need of unity, which manifested itself when in the second century heresies began to appear.
The Apostolic and consequently the Divine origin of the monarchical episcopate has always been contested but especially so since Protestantism put forward the doctrine of a universal Christian priesthood.
They are most easily found in the work of von Dunin-Borkowski, on the latest researches concerning the origin of the episcopate (Die Neuren Forschungen uber die Anfange des Episkopats, Frieburg, 1900).
The historical origin of the episcopate is much controverted: very diverse hypotheses have been proposed to explain the texts of the inspired writings and of the Apostolic Fathers relating to the primitive ecclesiastical hierarchy.
When those officials who had been endowed with the charismatic gifts had passed away, the community delegated several bishops to replace them.